21. lis 2016.


Dnevne priče Ibrahima Kajana

Ne viđam se ja sa svojim malobronim "lobijem" samo nedjeljom u "Malti". Sjeli smo neku večer, nakon predstavljanja Elbisine knjige, u cernički kafić Passage. O "živim temamam Mostara" u razgovor je upleten aktuelni kantonalni ministar. Poznajem ga, imponira načitanošću i informiranošću, kultiviranim duhom i manirima ponešenim iz kuće "pune knjiga" svoga roditelja. Sviđaju mi se neki njegovi stavovi koje izgovara s pozicija "ugroženog političkog tijela" ratne žrtve nad kojim se sada dominira nad Mostarom i blokira svaki pokušaj funkcionalnog, civilnog ustroja. Spominjući aktere vlasti, strukture i njihove nosioce, kao glavne i isključive političke subjekte "koji će riješiti krizu Mostara", shvatih i protrnuh od nelagode! Ministrovo (nesvjesno?) poimanje političara koji izražavaju volju političkog naroda u cjelini - nije "od ovog svijeta", nego od svijeta srednjovjekovnog! Srednjovjekovno poimanje političkog naroda odnosilo se isključivo na tanki, vladajući feudalni sloj. Ovdje i danas, "politički narod" posreduje uska, neuvjerljiva, šarolika "stranačka elita".
Svi se mi drugi "možemo ubiti" misleći i protestirajući - oni nas ne
čuju i ne vide. Mi sloju političkog naroda ne pripadamo. Mi za njih ne postojimo. Njih ne mogu savjetovati intelektualci, mislioci, filozofi - njih mogu savjetovati samo ideologizirana djeca (kao što i jest u praksi!) - jer su ti, misleći ljudi, najodvratnija "kasta" današnjim bh. "vladarima" na svim razinama - od općine do kantona, od entiteta do države.

U Mostaru, 21. 10. 2016, 

11. lis 2016.


Author: Ibrahim Kajan

Katarina Kosača Kotromanić

Two children of Herzog Kosača, the eldest and the youngest, Katarina and Stjepan, became unforgettable names in the history.

Katarina is the eldest child of Herzog Stjepan Kosača and Jelena Balsic, daughter of the Montenegrin royal house. She was born there in 1424. When she was 25, Katarina married the new king of Bosnia of house Kotromanić, bogumil Stjepan Tomaš. In order to become the queen and for Stjepan Tomaš to be recognised by the Pope as the king - they both, along with his underage son of the same name Stjepan, from his just dissolved marriage with "inappropriate" Vojača, had to give up - she the Orthodox Church and he the Bosnian Church - and had to receive the sacraments of the Holy Roman Catholic church.

The people kept Katarina in the collective memory as a person who has followed the Christian guidance about love among people, who donated many good to churches and occasionally, as tradition says, built them herself. The king had a son Sigismund and daughter Katarina. But someone unknown killed her king in 1461. Franciscan chronicles for centuries were pointing the finger at "potential killers": king’s brother Radivoje and the king's son, an heir, his firstborn, Stjepan Tomašević! Climbing to the vacant throne, with the new short-term king, Tomaševic, Bosnia saw the last queen Jelena, that came from Serbian despotic home of Lazar Branković. Changing her faith, she acquired a new name, Marija.
But in 1463 Bosnia fell under Turkish occupation. The refugees moved to the West. The widow of murdered Stjepan Tomaš found asylum in Rome. Pope was providing her monthly appanage which supported her small court in exile. The children of the murdered King Tomaš, as Muslim historians write, Sigismund and Katarina "entered the tent of Ishak Ishaković" seeking protection from their uncle Ahmed Pasha Hercegović, Katarina’s youngest brother, once called Stjepan. Christian historians recorded that the queen's children were "kidnapped and converted to Islam by force." What is the truth?
It is strange that Katarina writes her testament five days before her death that befell her at the age of 54, on October, 25, 1478. Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia came after the testament, later known as the Pope Alexander VI. In what conditions unhappy Katarina wrote this testament after which will come Cardinal who has "become a father of several children and lived in the open immorality" and "pontificate deserved by bribery", the person who "left stain on the history of the papacy"? Katarina's original testament was never found. There is something called a "transcription", and what worth would it have, when Katarina Kosača Kotromanić was neither de jure nor de facto a Bosnian ruler.
That does not however mean that our Katarina is not an integrative historical figure. Good ones remember her for her good deeds, the Orthodox for the Orthodox origin, the Catholics for love of religion and the Muslims  for the destiny of her brother Stjepan (Ahmed) and her own children Sigismund (Ishak Bey Hercegović) and Katarina, whose tomb is in present-day in Macedonian city of Skopje.

Stjepan Kosača – Ahmet Pasha Hercegović

According to all that has been said, Herzog Stjepan, out of all of his children, loved his youngest son Stjepan the best. No wonder: he was a child and did not have time to let him down! He was this way when his father handed him over to the Sultan in 1463. The boy was a living pledge of Kosača’s allegiance, vassalage and pacification of Herzegovina. Stjepan, in Topkakapi’s seraglios became Ahmet Pasha Hersegzade (Hercegović) marked with nobility in origin, and eventually, the Grand Vizier and son-in-law of Sultan Bayezid II. Three times he was named the Grand Vizier, or five, as some claim, leaving a deep mark in the reign of the greatest empires that stretched across three continents. He was also a poet, who is still studied in the Turkish and Bosniak literature.

He never forgot his homeland, neither Blagaj, nor Herzegovina, nor the parish of Dubrovnik - because as a boy, his deceased father bequeathed houses and vineyards in Konavle that his uncle Sandalj "sold" to the people of Dubrovnik. He remembered Bosnian language, dictated logofats and katibs in it, and as well as this one we are transcribing, yellowed, but with a lot of modernity that is timeless. He sent it in April 1488 to the prince and gentry of Dubrovnik. As Herzog’s son, he was a citizen of Dubrovnik, and from the city, as his heritage, orderly received regular annual "income".

Ahmet-pasha: Letter of the Dubrovnik prince

His own man and man of the world
To the dear and cherished gentelmen of Dubrovnik, to the Prince, and the squires, from your brother Ahmet Hercegović. Squires, you all know that our Lord Herzog left by will his treasure to us when he died. And that treasure was in your hands. When you gave it to my brother, for the same you asked me. I told you to give - nothing else except the testament is not in your hands. Yes, that is the word of the Great Lord, for them to honour the document.
Squires, I ask of you as my brothers to do your best for our work, as we are doing as much as we can for yours. If you think that I have forgotten about our friendship, God knows, I have not. If you do your best for my work, I will do the best for yours. May God enhance your Lordship.

Translated: Amina Imami


Author: Ibrahim Kajan

Blagaj is one of two Bosnian towns that were mentioned for the first time in history by the Byzantine emperor Porphyrogenitus in his famous manuscript from the 10th century - De Administrando Imperio (On the Governance of the Empire). History of Blagaj has never been adequately examined over the layers of time, unlike its archeological layers to which science has produced definitive answers. From these tests it is completely apparent that the medieval Blagaj was built on Roman foundations, Illyrian, and Roman retaining walls  and extensions with some brick, used for the first time as a building material and masonry stone layers as "fishbone". This timeline spans back to encompass the last 2,000 years!

Written records of historical value related to the rulers of the city on a cliff below which the Buna river springs, with its political story systematically follows only its medieval masters of the house Hranić, especially Vlatko Vukovic, Sandalj Hranić and his nephew – heir of the famous Herzog Stjepan Vukčić Kosača (1405 - 1466).

A kind of a cheerful sentiment, enormous sympathy, and even historical love with the last master of the fortress and the whole of Hum, Herzog Stjepan, can be felt in the century-old series of oral traditions of the people of Blagaj, even to this day! It is unprecedented that any narratives remained about any historical figure, pre-Islamic in particular, containing so many "adventures and misadventures", nor has there ever been built an entire pseudo-narrative "loaded" with flaming erotic stories and defiant patriotism – as much as about him.

He succeeded his uncle, grand duke Sandalj Hranić, in his 30s, in 1435. Over his Hum land, forming a massive crescent floating at sea, with horns that touched Srebrenica in the east and Pset in the west, was the royal Bosnia. The earth would quake every time he was angry with the King, King Tomaš, to whom he gave his daughter Katarina as his wife. In addition to Katarina, he had another daughter Mara and three sons: Vladislav, Vlatko  and Stjepan aka Ahmed. Herzog died in his town Novi, in 1466, named after him, Herceg Novi.

The shape of the fortress on the cliff above the source of the Buna was formed on the ancient foundations of an independent governance of Mihajlo Višević, between 910 and 930 - a short time before it will be mentioned as a topographic point on the political map of the world by tzar Porphyrogenitus. As a military fortification, it completely disappeared by the arrival of Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1878.                                              

After research in 1990 dr. A. Ratkovic recorded that the position of the Blagaj fort has not many similarities with the majority of Bosnian residential fortifications. He observes that "the most obvious difference between the constructed surface on which flattened land is used to the end above vertical cliffs, preventing an approach below the northern, southern and western rampart." That is why, he believes, the entrance to the fortress was built in the eastern and hardest wall of the court to which led a narrow horse trail from the direction of the east. This is "a path which led to a powerful, high and thick gate walls ". If one should attempt to break into the fortress, the lobby prevented and blocked intruders. Above the entrance gate a tower rises. Right from the entrance of the ruins are houses of arrested prisoners. In one of gloomily blackened stone one misfortunate man carved (perhaps with a fingernail): ''This writes Vrsan Kosarić, a prisoner who has no reason to rejoice.''

In the central area, stood the residence and court of house Kosača monarchs. Now, with collapsed stones, just a few remnants of the former are visible, a truncated stairwell. In the court was also one of the two tanks. Tradition says that there were drinking water springs on the Blagaj hill, so many authors from that fact drew the conclusion on the permanent level of water in a large tank, visible even  today!

                   Mihrab u hercegovoj tvrđi (foto: Semir Pintul)

Along the southern part of the ramparts, long building was leaning, probably built for commercial purposes. The total could be around 15 houses and cottages. The eastern part of the complex were protected by three square towers with double ramparts, up to 14 metres high. The walls’ thickness ranged from 1.5 to 2 meters.
Mihrab dent in the wall, to the left of the main entrance, testifies of the existence of masjeed where prayers were performed by Fatih's vassals. This can be considered to be the first mosque in Herzegovina. It was built after the Turks conquered the city in 1466, the same ones in which the happy and powerful Herzog Šćepan left this deceptive, shifty and impermanent world. Returning from the fortress down the narrow horse trail to the suburb, one will see high martyrs headstones emerge from spring bushes, without incisions and letters, no names, only to witness how once upon a time someone like us lived in this world. Let the bygones be bygones.

 Translated: Amina Imami

10. lis 2016.


Author: Ibrahim Kajan:

 Blagaj, two thousand years

Only those who never set off for Blagaj will never arrive there. Turn to face the southern exit from Mostar and follow the path to the source of the Buna river - 12 kilometres or a 15-minute drive covers a distance 2,000 years long!

I saw the map of the missing roads, part of the study by Vaclav Radimsky published in the Journal of the National Museum 125 years ago. It is after these instructions that the map of the Bišće polje was produced by Hugo Jedlicka.

You see that Bišće polje begins on the outskirts of Mostar; this is a plain full of secrets that will not be revealed to just anyone. When you turn off the M17 towards Blagaj, you are greeted by Mukoša-inn at the crossroads. This is where the road to Blagaj branches off from that leading to Buna. Radimsky saw the ruins of the old Roman building with ''sculpted cornices, foundations and heads of the pillars, all of which probably formed part of a temple."

Situated right on the north-east side of the Royal vineyards, one enters the extended village of Gnojnice. The locality inhabited since ancient times: east of the mosque Radimsky  saw one, and west, in a clearing, two Illyrian tumuli. Rural well Vrba was  "walled with fragments of Roman monuments decorated with reliefs". In a previously unknown Roman settlement now known as Gnojnice, 27 medieval tombstones were found. Radimsky headed for the Cross, a secluded round mound in the locality of Dračevice. He saw at its foot, "above the scattered tumuli" - and on the top: a prehistoric fort. Towards the slope, moving on to Blagaj, the river-bed of Posrt meandered. Radimsky crossed the bridge of an anonymous and not particularly distinguished artisan. There starts Blagaj district Vrač, a place of luxurious villa owned by the Kosača duchy.
When Radimsky reached the source of the Buna river, he saw this building " embraced by both sides of the closed vertical cliffs leaning over it." Next to it is a tomb, "a modest tomb of Mohammedan saint where pious Mohammedans often come to pray," he writes to the best of his ability.

He provided a succinct description of Herzog's medieval castle above the Tekke, the crags - and the invisible walls and foundations – witnesses of Roman and Illyrian "architectural hands". From the castle Bišće is in plain view and figurines of people can be seen, along with a mosque, in the centre of Blagaj. Below the mosque, Buna flows, and over the Buna there is bridge composed of five arches. Radimsky still did not know that it was built by Karađoz bey in the 16th century. But he found the stone tablet with letters stating that it was renovated in 1849 by Belfe Kadir, the daughter of Ali bey Velagic.

Crossing the bridge to the other side, they took the hard path around the foothill of the stone Matere plateau, a toponym of Roman origin, towards Kosor. At the foothill of Kosorska glavica he ''found ruins of approximately 15 buildings lined up next to each other,” apparently streets, "some lined with sand and some with dry running." With joy they added to that the  "remains of Roman loamy vessels, iron nails" and all sorts of ancient "trinkets": the pocket money of a hollow pocketed Roman legionnaire. 

Furthermore, they found "a medieval object" - the stone chair of Herzog Stjepan, where he sat and tried serfs and slaves of Hum. Jedlička  drew it immersed into soil, tilted as intoxicated bride. He also drew the chairs’ background, the letter by letter in our Bosančica: ‘’Take a look at this stone/ To whom it used to belong/ to whom it belongs now/ to whom it will never belong ‘’. That Herzog's chair can be found in National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo.

The biggest "Roman" monument of stone that was found was "ancient"  Kosorski bridge  "extended over seven shafts, wide 2.6 to 6.5 m, and length  together with ascents 57 meters with wideness of 4 meters ..." The dispute about the origin of the bridge seems to be continued to this day.

Moving away from Kosor to Buna, the duo climbed to Kičin-forest, a mythical place full of secrets to this day. They came across peaks, remains of round houses, fortresses - maybe, Roman and pre-Roman date "rearranged" by human hand.

In the place named Buna, with access to the main road M17, the southern side of the triangular Bišće-fields is closing. No more further. "Small miracles" that were hidden, and smashed into fragments by not so gentle history, are the only signs of good that we inherited as unloved heirs of the corresponding part of the world.

Translated: Amina Imami

9. lis 2016.



Multimedijalna promocija održat će se


  Ilustracija priče Bje li pijetao iz Studentskog lista, Zagreb,  29. III. 1972 Ibrahim Kajan        BJE LI PIJETAO   Jedva napomena: ...